Tuesday, January 31, 2012


papers : Indonesia Public Health Education

 Indonesia Public Health Education
 Indonesia Public Health Education
Indonesian public health education is lacking, therefore papers public health education in Indonesia is expected to help the growing Indonesian community health education, and this is the contents of the Indonesian community health education by oneheath.bogspot.com
The paper is titled Indonesian community health education include :

A. Principles of health education

1. Health education is not just a lesson in class, but it is a collection of experience anywhere and anytime throughout the knowledge can affect attitudes and habits of educational objectives.

2. Health education can not be easily granted by one person to another, because ultimately it's own educational goals that can change their own habits and behavior.

3. That should be done by educators is to create goals for individuals, families, groups and communities can change their own attitudes and behavior.

4. Health education is successful when the goals of education (individuals, families, groups and communities) have changed attitudes and behavior in accordance with the intended purpose.

B. The scope of public health education

The scope of public health education can be seen from three dimensions:

1. The dimensions of the target

a. Health education of individuals with individual goals
b. Health education target groups with specific community groups.
c. Public health education by the target public.

2. The dimensions of the implementation

a. Health education in hospitals with patient and family goals
b. Health education in schools to target students.
c. Health education in the community or workplace with a target community or workers.

3. The dimensions of health care level

a. Health education health promotion (Health Promotion), eg nutrition, improved sanitation, environment, lifestyle and so on.
b. Health education for special protection (Specific Protection) eg: immunization
c. Health education for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment (Early diagnostics and prompt treatment) eg: with proper treatment and perfectly able to avoid the risk of disability.
d. Health education for rehabilitation (Rehabilitation) eg by restoring the condition of disability through certain exercises.

C. Methods of health education

1. Individualized education methods (individual)

The shape of the individual methods there are 2 (two) forms:

a. Guidance and counseling (guidance and counseling), namely;

   1) Contacts between clients with more intensive staff

   2) Any problems encountered by clients can be scraped and assisted solution.

   3) Finally, the client will be voluntary and based on the awareness, understanding will accept such behavior     (changing behavior)

b. Interview (interview)

1) Is part of the guidance and counseling

2) Digging or information as to why he had not yet received the change, to see if the behavior that has been or will be adopted that have a basic understanding and awareness of a strong, if not then need a more in-depth counseling again.

2. The educational methods

The educational method should pay attention to whether the group is large or small, because the method would be different. Effectiveness of any method will depend on the magnitude of educational objectives.

a. Powerhouse
1) Lectures; method suitable for the target high and low educated.
2) Seminar: only suitable for large groups with the goal of secondary education and above. The seminar is a presentation (presentation) from a single expert or multiple experts on a topic that is considered important and is usually considered to be warm in the community.

b. Small groups
1) Discussion of the group;
Made in such a way as to face each other, discussion leader / instructor sat between the participants so that no impression is higher, each group has the freedom of expression, led discussions provide inducement, directing, and set so that the discussion goes live and there was no dominance of one participant.
2) Brainstorm (brain storming);
Is a modification of the discussion group, started by giving a single problem, then the participants gave an answer / response, the response / answer is housed and is written in a flipchart / whiteboard, before devoting all of opinion there should be no comment from anyone, just after all mengemukaan opinion, each members to comment on, and finally the discussion.
3) The ball of snow (Snow Balling)
Each one is divided into pairs (1 pair 2 people). Then posed a question or problem, after approximately 5 minutes every 2 pairs merge into one. They are still discussing the issue, and find its conclusions. Then every two pairs consisting of 4 persons who have joined again with another partner and so on eventually the whole class discussion.
4) small group (group Buzz)
Direct Group is divided into small groups, then raised an issue equal / not equal to other groups, and each group discussed the issue. Further conclusions from each group and the conclusions sought.
5) Play a role (Role Play)
Some members of the group designated as the holder of a particular role to play certain roles, such as a clinic doctor, as nurse or midwife, etc., while the other member as a patient / member of the community. They demonstrate how the interaction / communication in carrying out everyday tasks.
6) simulation games (Simulation Game)
Is a picture of role play and group discussions. The messages presented in the form of the game like a game of monopoly. How to play exactly like playing monopoly by using dice, gaco (direction), and board games. Some people become players, and some serve as resource persons.

3. Methods of mass education

In general form of the approach (how) this is not direct. Usually use or through the mass media. Example:

a. Lecture (public speaking)

Performed on a specific event, such as National Health Day, for example by a minister or other health officials.

b. Speeches discussion about health through electronic media both TV and radio, in essence is a form of health education of the masses.

c. Simulation, dialogue between patients with a physician or other health worker about a disease or health problem through TV or radio is also a mass health education. Example: "Practice Doctor Herman Susilo" on TV.

d. Soap opera "Doctor Sartika" in the TV show is also a form of mass health approach. Traces of the eagle on the soap opera Indosiar Saturday afternoon (th 2006)

e. The writings in magazines / newspapers, either in the form of articles and frequently asked questions / consultation on health between the disease is also a form of mass health education.

f. Bill Board, which is installed on the roadside, banners and posters, and so on are also forms of health education of the masses. Example: Billboard "Come to the IHC". You who can prevent it (Nest Mosquito Eradication).

D. Media tools and health education

1. Assistive devices (aids)

a. Understanding;

The tools used by learners in delivering educational materials / teaching, often referred to as props. Dale Elgar props dividing it into 11 (eleven) types, and also illustrates the intensity level of each of these tools in a cone. Occupying the base of the cone is the original object that has the highest intensity followed by mock objects, skits, demonstrations, field trips / field trips, exhibitions, television, film, tape / radio, writing, words. Submission of material with words alone is less effective / lowest intensity.

b. Educational tools avail

    1) Potential targets educational interests.

     2) Achieving more goals.

     3) To help overcome language barriers.

     4) Stimulate the aim of education to carry out health messages.

     5) Assist educational objectives to learn more and faster.

    6) Stimulate the aim of education to forward received messages to others.

    7) Facilitate the delivery of educational materials / information by educators / actors of education.

    8) Facilitating the reception of information by the educational objectives.

     According to expert studies the senses, the most widely distribute knowledge into the brain is the eye.   Approximately 75-87% of human knowledge acquired / channeled through the eyes, while 13-25% are channeled through other senses. Here it can be concluded that the more visual tools to simplify the delivery and receipt of information or educational materials.

    9) Encourage the desire of people to know, then go deeper, and ultimately provide a better understanding.

   10) To help enforce the understanding gained.

c. Various kinds of educational aids

        1) The tools see (visual aids);

         - A tool that is projected to: slides, films, film strips and so on.

        - Tools that are not projected; for two-dimensional such as pictures, maps, charts; for example three-dimensional globes, dolls, etc..

        2) Hearing aids (audio aids); vinyl records, radio, vocal cords, etc..

        3) see the hearing aids (audio-visual aids); television and VCD.

d. Target achieved educational aids

     1) Individuals or groups

    2) target categories such as age group, education, employment, etc..

    3) The language they use

    4) customs and habits

    5) The interest and attention

    6) Knowledge and experience of the messages to be received.

e. Plan and use props

        The things to note are:

       1) The purpose of education, this goal can be to:

         a) Change of knowledge / understanding, opinions and concepts.

         b) Changing attitudes and perceptions.

         c) Embedding behavior / habits of the new.

2) Intended use props

a) As an aid in training / refresher courses / education.

b) To draw attention to a problem.

c) To remind something messages / information.

d) To explain these facts, procedures, actions.

f. Before using props

All the props are made useful as a learning tool and still have to keep in mind that this tool can function on its own teaching. We must develop skills in selecting, holding props appropriately so as to have maximum results.

Example: a set of flip charts on healthy foods for infants / children must be shown one by one in sequence while explaining each picture and its message. Then a discussion was held in accordance with the needs of listeners in order to place two-way communication. If we do not prepare and display only the flip chart sheets one by one without explaining or discussing the use of flip charts may fail.

g. How to use props

How to use visual aids depends on the appliance. Using pictures, of course, another by using slide film. Factors also must be considered targets education, illiterate people will differ with educated people. More importantly, the tools used must also be attractive, giving rise to the interest of participants.

When to use AVA, should pay attention to:

1) A smile is better, to seek sympathy.

2) Show your attention, that things will be discussed / demonstrated, it is important.

3) eye view should be to all listeners, so they do not lose control of the educator.

4) Tone of voice should be subject to change, so that the listener is not bored and not sleepy.

5) Involve participants / listeners, give it a chance to hold and or try these tools.

6) If necessary give humorous interlude, to liven things and so on.

2. Media health education

Media health education is essentially a tool of education (audio visual aids / AVA). Called the medium of education for these tools is a tool channel (channel) to deliver health because the tools used to facilitate the acceptance of health messages for the community or "clients". Based on its function as the distribution of health messages (media), the media is divided into 3 (three): Print, electronics, media board (bill boards)

1) Print media

1) Booklet: to convey the message in the form of books, both text and pictures.

2) Leaflets: through a folded sheet, the message content can be images / text or both.

3) Flyer (flyers); like leaflets but not in the crease.

4) Flip chart (Turn sheet); message / health information in the form of a flip chart. Usually in the form of book, where each sheet (page) contains a picture show and on the reverse contains the sentence as a message / information relating to such images.

5) Rubric / writings in newspapers or magazines, on the subject of a health problem, or things related to health.

6) The poster is a form of print media contains pesan-pesan/informasi health, which is usually taped to the walls, in public places or on public transport.

7) photos, which reveal health information.

2) Electronic media

1) Television; be in the form of soap operas, plays, discussion / question and answer, speeches / lectures, TV, Spot, quiz, or a quiz, etc..

2) Radio; be in the form of chat / question and answer, radio plays, lectures, radio spots, etc..

3) Video Compact Disc (VCD)

4) Slide: slides can also be used to convey messages / health information.

5) The film strips can also be used to convey health messages.

3) Media board (bill boards)

Board / bill board mounted in public places can be used is filled with messages or information - health information. Media board here also include the messages written on a sheet of zinc is placed on public transportation (bus / taxi).

E. Health behavior

1. The concept of behavioral

Skinner (1938) argued that an expert's behavior is the behavior is the result of the relationship between the stimulus (stimulus) and response (response). He divided the responses into two:

a. Respondents responses / reflexive response, the response is induced by specific stimuli. Such stimulation is called elicting stimuli, because it raises the relative responses remain, for example: delicious food cause the release of saliva, intense light will cause your eyes closed, etc.. Respondents responses (respondents behavior) also includes emotional responses or emotional behavior. Emotional response was caused by something less reassure the organism in question. For example, shedding tears of pain / pain, flushing (increased blood pressure due to anger). Instead reassure things can cause emotional behaviors such as laughing, on tiptoe with excitement, etc..

b. Response operant or instrumental response, is arising and developing responses followed by a specific excitation. Stimulants are called reinforcing stimuli or reinforcer, because the stimulation-stimulation strengthens the response that has been done by the organism. Therefore, such stimuli or reinforce something that follows a particular behavior that has been done. Example: If a child learn or have committed an act, then the prize, it will be more keen to learn or would be better off doing the deed. In other words, the response will be more intense or even more.

2. Health behavior

Ie a person's response (organism) to the stimulus associated with pain and disease, the health care system, food and environment. Behavioral health includes 4 (four):

a. Behavior of a person against illness and disease, that is how people respond, either passive (knowing, perceiving disease and pain that exist in themselves and outside themselves, as well as active (act) done in relation to the illnesses and pain. The behavior of pain and illness This by itself according to the levels of disease prevention, eg prevention of illness behavior (health prevention behavior), is a response to the prevention of disease, such as: sleeping with mosquito nets to prevent mosquito bites malaria, immunization, etc.. Perception is as experience generated through the five senses.

b. Behavioral health services, both traditional and modern health services. These behaviors include responses to service facilities, how to care, health, and medicine, embodied in knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and pengguanaan facilities, personnel and medicines.

c. The behavior of food (nutrition behavior), namely one's response to food as a vital necessity for life, including knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and practices towards food as well as our elements contained in it / nutrition, food management, etc..

d. Behavioral health of the environment (environmental health behavior) is an individual's response to the environment as a determinant of human health. The scope of this behavior is an area of ​​environmental health sphere itself (with clean water, sewerage, with waste, with a healthy home, by cleaning the nests of mosquitoes (vectors), and so on.

Becker (1979) proposed the classification of health-related behaviors (health behavior) as follows:

1) Behavioral health (health behavior), namely matters relating to acts or activities of a person in preserving and improving health, including measures to prevent illness, personal hygiene, selecting food, sanitation, and so on.

2) Behavioral pain (illness behavior), ie any act or activity undertaken by an individual who felt the pain, to feel the feel and know the state of health or pain, including the individual's ability or knowledge to identify the disease, the cause of disease, as well as efforts prevent disease.

3) Conduct the role of illness (the sick role behavior), ie any act or activity that dilakuakan by individuals who are sick to obtain healing. This behavior is in addition to an effect on the health / pain itself, it also affects other people, especially children who do not have the awareness and responsibility for health.

3. Forms of behavior

In more operational, the behavior can be interpreted an organism or a person's response to the stimulus (stimulus) from outside the subject. Shaped response 2 (two) kinds:

a. Passive form is an internal response, namely that occur in man and not directly be seen by others, such as response or attitude of mind and knowledge. For example: a mother knows that the immunization is to prevent a specific disease, although he did not bring her to the clinic, someone who encourage others to family planning, although he did not participate KB. From the example above it has been know to maternal immunization and that person had a positive attitude to support family planning, although they themselves have not done in concrete terms to two. Therefore, their behavior is still shrouded (covert behavior).

b. Active form, namely that behavior can clearly be observed directly. For example in the second example above, the mother had brought her child to the clinic for immunization and people have participated in the second case in the sense of family planning has become family planning acceptors. Therefore, their behavior is already apparent in the form of real action, it is called "overt behavior".

4. Domains of health behavior

a. According to Bloom

1) Perilku cognitive (awareness, knowledge)

2) affective (emotional)

3) Psychomotor (movement, action)

b. According to Ki Hajar Dewantara

1) Copyright (peri sense)

2) Pain (peri taste)

3) Willing (fairies follow)

c. Other experts

1) Knowledge (knowledge), namely the "know" and it occurs after the person doing sensing (taste, see, hear, touch, smell) of a particular object.

2) Attitude (attitude), which is a reaction or response to someone who is still closed to a stimulus or object. Other experts expressed readiness / willingness of someone to act.

3) Practice (action / practice). An attitude is not necessarily automatic manifest in an action (overt behavior). For the realization of the attitude necessary to be a real act of supporting factors or a condition that allows, among other facilities. Positive attitude towards immunization mothers should receive a confirmation of her husband, and there are facilities within easy reach of immunization, the immunized mother to her child. In addition to the factors necessary facilities are also factors support (support) from other parties, such as husband or wife, parents or in-laws, it is very important to support the practice of family planning.

5. Three principal factors underlying / influence behavior:

a. Predisposing factors, in the form of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, traditions, values, etc..

b. Factors Enabling / enabling, in the form sumber-sumber/fasilitas availability, rules and regulations.

c. Reinforcing factors / encourage / strengthen, in the form of religious leaders, community leaders.

F. Changes in behavior and learning

1. Stimulus and transformation theory

The theory of stimulus - response underestimates the internal factors, and the transformation that has accounted for the internal factors. Theory proceed from stimulus response psychology association stated that what happened to the subject of a confidential or learning is typically seen as a black box (black box). Learning is taking responses - responses and linking responses - responses by repeating - again. More and more given stimulus, the more enriching responses in subjects studied.

Transformation theory based on cognitive psychology, states that learning is a process that is internal in which each process is influenced by external factors, such as teaching methods. External factors such as contiguity, repetition / repetition, reinforcement. Internal factors such as facts, information, skills, intellectual, and strategy.

2. Social learning theories (social learning)

a. The theory of social learning and imitation of the Millers and Dollard

There are three kinds of artificial mechanisms of behavior;

1) the same behavior (same behavior).

Example: two people who shop at the same time and with the same goods.

2) The behavior depends on (macthed dependent behavior).

Example: the brothers are waiting for her mother home from the market. Usually their mothers carry chocolate (reward). Her sister also attended. His younger brother who was originally only imitate his brother's behavior, at other times though her brother was not there, he'll run fetch her mother who had just returned from the market.

3) The behavior of copies (copying behavior)

The difference in behavior is dependent in behavior is dependent impostor behaved only for signals given by the model at that time only. While on the behavior of the copy, the mimic model behavior is also noticed in the past and the future. Behavior models in a relatively long period of time will be used as a benchmark the mimic for his own behavior improving in the foreseeable future, so the model is closer to tigkah behavior.

b. Social learning theory of Bandura and Walter

1) The effect modeling (modeling effect), the impersonator perform a new behavior through association to fit the model behavior.

2) inhibiting effect (inhibition) and remove barriers (disinhibition), where the behavior that is inconsistent with the model inhibited the onset, whereas the corresponding behavior with the behavior of the model eliminated the barriers causing the behavior that can become real.

3) Effect ease (facilitation effect), which is behavior-behavior that has been studied by imitators easily emerge again by observing the behavior of the model.

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